RECONSTRUCTION COMMON GROUND Laboratory_
Camerino, fiastra, ussita, castelsantangelo sul nera
Prof. Isabella Inti –coordinator, Urban Design
Prof. Riccardo Mazzoni –Architectural Design
Prof. Irene Toselli –Landscape Design
Carlo Gallelli and Mara Micol Reina –Tutors
Val Nerina 4.0 / Marche Region
Val Nerina & Sibillini mountains areas are an experimental laboratory for post earthquake reconstruction, part of “Cratere area“ in Central Italy.
Safeguarding and promoting the identity of landscapes and the constellation of little art historical towns in Marche Region.
Realizing an appropriate temporary reconstruction must maintain and enhance collective spaces & values (common ground).
Improving functional and social mixitè in the new neighbourhoods and design SAE and all the short-term and medium-term types through seismic techniques to enable the transformation or demountage.
Experimenting in the historical centers a reconstruction of infills and graftings with a plurality of architecture types with long-term seismic techniques.
Developing New Economies 4.0 related to innovative short production chains and technologies (food-chain | food & agricolture, wood-chain | manifacture, productive forestation, reconstruction chain| anti-seismic materials, etc.) with the involvement of Citizens and local small and medium companies.
Transferring anti-seismic innovation from research Institutions to local economy.
Co-designing a wide range of facilities, from mobility to healthcare, from social to educational.
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Thematic Studio 053009 |School of Architecture Urban Planning Construction Engineering, Politecnico di Milano | aa. 2018-19
RECONSTRUCTION COMMON GROUND Laboratory_
Camerino, Fiastra, Ussita, Castelsantangelo sul Nera
Prof. Isabella Inti – coordinator, Urban Design
Prof. Riccardo Mazzoni –Architectural Design
Prof. Irene Toselli –Landscape Design
“Earthquake decree, the rules on the amnesty of illegal buildings must be changed”, OsservatorioSisma, 16.07.2018
“Central Italy earthquake, grandmother Peppina will return to her wooden house”, TGcom24, 21.06.2018
“Earthquake, delivered the last houses: completed the assignments in 20 municipalities”, AnconaToday, 25.03.2018
“Camerino abandoned after the earthquake: the revolt of the university professors”, Il Messaggero 28.01.2018
“Earthquake in Central Italy: Coldiretti, 52 million euros in damages suffered by farms and stables”, 7.2.2017
“Earthquake, the villages to be saved: Ussita, skiing and truffles, the mountain that tourists like”, la Repubblica, 01.11.2016
At 3.36 a.m. on August 24, 2016 an earthquake struck central Italy, with epicenter between Amatrice and Accumoli, in the province of Rieti. The victims were 299. Two other shocks – magnitude 5.4 and 5.9 – were recorded on 26 October 2016 with epicenter near Castelsantangelo sul Nera, in the province of Macerata. On October 30, 2016, a magnitude 6.5 shock was recorded, with an epicenter between Norcia and Preci, in the province of Perugia. On January 18, 2017, four other shocks of magnitude greater than 5 occurred. The epicenter was recorded in the province of L’Aquila, in Montereale, Capitignano, Pizzoli and Campotosto.
In Italy in 2016-18, the centers affected directly by the earthquake were 140, of which 52 are still “red areas”, that is completely and partially inaccessible. Together they form an extended crater for a thousand square kilometers which involves four Italian regions: Abruzzo, Lazio, Marche, Umbria. And how to manage and what to do with the rubble of the earthquake? In the Marche region of 87 affected municipalities, 52 are still invaded by the rubble and 9 are still inaccessible due to the inaccessibility of the roads, therefore unable to start the collection of aggregates. The estimate of the Marche Region, with the largest crater area, is 1.120.000 tons of rubble, of which 117.500 already collected, 10.50%.
Italian territory is frequently subject to earthquakes for the particular geodynamic situation, The convergence of the Eurasian plaque with the African plaque. The focal point analysis indicates that they are mostly distributed along mountainous and pre hill areas, interested in Alpine and Apennine tectonic, where the movements along the faults are visible.
The earthquake of 2016-17 hit the center of Italy making hundreds of deaths and more than 100,000 displaced. It has caused serious damage to agriculture, where 52 million euros have been estimated, in damages suffered by farms and stables and artistic heritage, beginning with the collapse of the bell tower of Santa Maria in Via of Camerino. Not to mention the immense historical and artistic heritage made of small hamlets perched on the Apennines, already fragile for depopulation, collapse and abandonment.
The reasons of abandonment of many historical villages in Italy since the ‘50s were either natural causes such as earthquakes, floods and landslides, such that human migration in search of work to the North Italy and abroad.
According to the report “1996-2016 Excellencies and ghost town in Italy of small towns”, released by Confcommercio and Legambiente, in Italy 1,650 small and medium-sized cities are becoming ghost town by 2016 due to a phenomenon of desertification. Ghost towns constitute one-fifth of Italian municipalities, amounting to one-sixth of the national territory. Resides there, at least for now, the 4.2% of the population, with 560 thousand residents over 65,20% more than the average Italian. The Italian ghost towns are part of an European (and American) phenomenon called Shrinking cities. A significant number of cities, old villages and regions currently face population decline, economic contraction, or both. The trend is raising new concerns for planning and architectural design.
A fragile Italy between depopulation and earthquake as for many small villages perched on the Apennines, but also Italy of the BelPaese, studded of art cities like Spoleto, Camerino, Fabriano, Gubbio, Norcia and a variety of mountain, lake, marine and hill landscapes among the red blades landscapes of Fiastra, a stratification of rock with an iron substrate in the Sibillini Mountains and sound landscapes like the roar vocalization emitted by the deer males in the area of Visso and Castelsantangelo sul Nera.
Camerino is an Italian town of 6,995 inhabitants in the province of Macerata in the Marche region, known for the presence of the University founded in medieval times. Located between the valleys of Chienti and Potenza, closed to the south by the massif of the Sibillini Mountains and to the north by Monte San Vicino. The territory is characterized for the most part by a hilly landscape, with alternating cultivated fields, small woods and ancient oaks. A millenary history, which originated with the Camerti an Umbrian tribe, then became Roman Aequum Foedus (309 BC), then conquered as a fief by the Longobards in 601 AD and here is where Bishop Sansovino was born, who later became the patron saint of the city. Already in 1000, Camerino was a thriving and independent municipality under the families of the Varano and the Borgias. In this period the Palazzo Ducale was built, noble palaces, churches, fortresses and defensive walls. New religious orders, like the Capuchin Franciscans, built convents and sanctuaries. In 1700 and again in 1997 strong earthquake shocks destroyed or damaged the cathedral, churches and noble buildings of the historic center. Destructions that also brought to light numerous finds and underlying buildings from the Hellenistic, Roman, Medieval and Renaissance periods. on 26 October 2017, a new earthquake caused widespread collapses and serious damage to almost all the buildings in the historic center, as well as to the populous suburb of Vallicelle. The shock had been preceded by another, lighter, which had meant that many people had left their homes, thus saving themselves. The most notable collapse was that of the bell tower of Santa Maria in Via.
Fiastra is an Italian town of 658 inhabitants in the province of Macerata in the Marche. Alongside the Red Blades of Fiastra are pinnacles shaped formations and towers consisting of gravel held together by clay and silt, formed thanks to the erosion of atmospheric agents. Nearby is Lake Fiastra along whose shores have developed some activities such as fishing.
Ussita is an Italian town of 446 inhabitants in the province of Macerata. It has a very ancient history dating back to the Samnite tribe of the Ussites. It was one of the five “guaite” of Visso, that in the XIII century had the administrative autonomy. The construction of the castle on the Fantellino hill dates back to 1380, favored by Rodolfo da Varano. The inhabited center was badly damaged by the earthquake of 2016 and 2017, in particular by the shocks that took place between 26 and 27 October. The shakes have demolished the facade of the church of Ussita, some of the sports facilities and made 90% of the buildings unusable, including the town hall.
Castelsantarcangelo sul Nera is an Italian town of 269 inhabitants in the province of Macerata. In its territory there are the sources of the Nera river and the beginning of Valnerina Park. In the area there are numerous prehistoric findings and the name of the town and its protector, San Michele Arcangelo, have a possible Longobard derivation.
In the Middle Ages it depended on the castle of Norcia until 1255 when, it was incorporated between the Guaite of Visso. Only in 1522 Castelsantangelo finally got rid of the “protectorate” of Norcia, when the latter was beaten by the soldiers of Ussita and Castelsantangelo, in the battle of Pian Perduto. The walls and the 15th-century urban layout are preserved from that period. The inhabited center suffered extensive damage as a result of earthquakes of magnitude 5.4 and 5.9 of 26 October and 6.5 October 30, 2016, whose epicenter was located in the municipality of Castelsantangelo.
What post-earthquake territorial planning has been adopted so far? What Housing Solutions For Emergency? What residential and community projects are for transition time (of months and often years), between the first emergency phase and the reconstruction of the ancient villages? What are the long-lasting reconstruction strategies?
According to civil protection, for the first emergency phase, in the morning of October 26, the assisted people were a thousand, of which 834 are hosted in hotels and resorts (more than half in San Benedetto del Tronto), 145 at the Project C.a.s.e. or Map provided by Aquila common, 134 nursing homes and 23 in tents: 6 in Saletta, a fraction of Amatrice, and 17 in Borgo, in the municipality of Arquata del Tronto.
Two years after the earthquake the situation of the crater is: A. 35% of emergency housing solutions, the so-called SAEs, are still to be delivered and over 2500 people are still without “casette”; B. more than 1200 earthquake victims self-organized with alternative housing solutions, are now without a home with the decree “Save Peppina” that instead of solving the situation has punished those who found an autonomous solution declared illegal; C. over 2 million tons of rubble are still waiting to be removed, preventing the reconstruction; D. without reconstruction to the thousands of jobs lost others are added every day in the artisan companies; E. entire villages are still isolated after almost two years from the most destructive shocks.
The aim of the course will attempt to answer the following town planning design question: what vision, what tools and strategies we need to adopt for the recontruction and enhancement of the historical town and landscape of Camerino, Fiastra, Ussita and Castelsantangelo sul Nera area, starting with common ground? Which strategies and projects for the “time in between” of month and often for years to recover, maintain and enhance the entire set of villages and landscapes for environmental, cultural, social and tourist purposes? Is reconstruction design to be considered a luxury or the housing quality is a necessity to make displaced people feel again at home? In the goal of recovery process to reconstruct places and reform the Community care for the area, what can be the design relation between the historical and archaeological remains, the agriculture and shepherding landscapes and the shrinking contemporary small towns? Should post-disaster interventions be public or private? How you can involve the local populations and flows of refugees, tourists, residents for a post disaster new sharing economy and the care and management of the heritage? What are the consequences of reconstruction policies and how can they be controlled or guided with planning and design?